I have some good news… and some not so good news (I don’t use the B word).
Firstly Adblock is not blocking anything on your page for me, I suspect it won’t for new/existing users who have the default settings, so that should be most of the worry off your mind.
Secondly I think that Adblock is seeing your image as an ad and blocking that, looking at the flow of your elements its the only thing that’s missing and it’s thrown a lot of other elements into chaos.
I know it’s possible to choose elements on a page to alert to adblock and make it think it’s an ad and it will block it from there onwards. Could there be a change you’ve right clicked your image or accidentally used a shortcut to alert adblock to an ad that doesn’t really exist?
Check the Adblock settings in Options —> “Filter Lists” and Customise “Hide a section of a website” to check to see if any filters are in place for your unbounce landing page url.
I suspect it could, and fingers crossed it is, isolated to just your installation of adblock and its configuration.
Let me know if we need to delve deeper or if that sorts your problem out. Below is a screeny of it working for me with Adblock turned on, just for your peace of mind